Orenburg shawl - knit scarf made from goat down and osnovy.Puhovyazalny fishing originated in the Orenburg region about 250 years ago, in the XVIII century. According to others, knitting woolen shawls from goat down the indigenous population of these places have already been before the formation of the Orenburg province. His origins were not only needlewomen-puhovnitsy, but also scientists, researchers and enthusiasts of art. The first who turned his attention to the Orenburg downy shawls, a PI Rychkov. In 1766, PI Rychkov published a study "The experience of the goats 'hair', offering to arrange puhovyazalny fishing in the province.
Subsequently, Academician PP Pekarsky, was a description of life Rychkova called him "the creator of the handicrafts in the Orenburg Cossack army, which feeds more than one thousand people, was the second century." Outside the Orenburg downy shawls became widely known after the meeting of the Free Economic Society January 20, 1770 At this meeting, AD Rychkov was awarded a gold medal "in gratitude for their zeal for the public gathering products from goat down."
Orenburg downy shawls abroad were first presented at the Paris International Exhibition in 1857. Thus, Orenburg shawl went to the international level, and there was a confession. In 1862 at the London exhibition Orenburg Cossack Uskova, MN received the medal "For shawls from goat down." Pooh Orenburg goats - the slimmest in the world: the thickness of the Orenburg goat down - 16-18 microns, Angora goat (mohair) - 22-24 microns. Therefore, the product of the Orenburg down - shawls and cobweb - especially gentle and soft.Harsh winters with snow and blizzards Orenburg - snowstorms, as well as feeding habits of Orenburg goats - the vegetation of mountain steppes of the Urals - are the main reasons why rock Orenburg goats is so thin down. However, this fluff is very strong - stronger than wool. The most amazing thing that Orenburg goats are bred only in the Orenburg region. Attempts by the French in the XIX century, to remove from the Volga region of Orenburg goat failed: slim down the goats need to keep warm and mild climate of France, this did not help. Orenburg goats in France degenerated and turned into ordinary goats with coarse thick fur. In the XVIII-XIX centuries, France has imported thousands of tons of Orenburg down, which is valued higher than Kashmir. Western Europe and now buys a lot of Orenburg down.
Peak of popularity Orenburg gossamer reached the sunset of the Russian Empire. At this time in England began to be manufactured products labeled "Imitation of Orenburg." But in our time, go abroad, not only a lot of notes and articles in foreign media, but also publishes entire books about the history of fishing and knitting Orenburg downy products. Orenburg shawls are several types: a simple shawl (shawl) - gray (rarely white) thick warm downy shawls. It is a production of Orenburg shawls and began puhovyazalny fishing. The warmest kind of scarf. These shawls are used for everyday wear. gossamer - a product of the tracery of fine goat down and spun silk. Do not use for everyday wear. It is used in ceremonies, festive occasions, since the schemes and techniques of knitting is much more complicated than simple fluff shawl. Usually used in more pure and soft wool, which increases the cost of the product. tippet - a thin scarf / cape, by the method of application is similar to knitting and cobweb.
Gossamer and tippet - a very thin, like a cobweb, shawls. Thin webs are usually complex pattern and are used as decoration. Best thin cobweb knit villages in the Yellow and Shishma Saraktash area. This spider will adorn any dress regardless of the style. Subtlety is often the product is determined by two parameters: whether the product passes through the ring and placed in a goose egg. However, not every good product must meet these conditions, as each expert at spinning yarn of varying thickness, sometimes preferring a thicker thread thin. As a basis for the use of silk webs (rarely - rayon or cotton), thread, cotton is used for shawls (at least - polyester) thread. In the spider is usually two-thirds down and one-third of silk. Good hand-knit scarf from the yarn twist: master at first spins a dense strand of goat down, and then napryadaet it on silk (cotton), thread-based. This scarf - shawl or a scarf - not initially looks fluffy. Products begin pushitsya in socks. A scarf worn for very long.
Good mistress month webs may link two or three medium-sized stole. In the manufacture of a scarf or a large scarf with a pattern or inscription takes a month or more. Each scarf - it is an original work of art, which is invested in a lot of creative work and patience puhovyazalschits-skilled workers. In the Orenburg region, not only knit by hand, but on the machines. Machine products are beautiful and less expensive, but can not match the hand-kerchiefs. Machine knitting with "chop" down, and the product becomes more coarse. This scarf is more like a scarf of very soft wool. However, the mid of some craftswomen scarf is knitted on the machine, as in this case is more mid-level products, but hand-in this case, valued more. The biggest collection of shawls is presented in the museum of history of Orenburg downy shawls, an affiliate of the Orenburg Regional Museum of Fine Arts.