Once, traveling to South-East Asia, in a private store, which sells souvenirs and icons, I think inadvertently lingered on the subject familiar from early childhood, it was a tray with a painting and, of course, Zhostovo. When asked where he took up here, really, no one could answer. But this meeting thousands of miles away from the homeland has made an indelible impression on me, as if something had met relatives and friends.
On the tray I could hardly read the name of the author of "N. Goncharov," and the tears of pride and gratitude in his eyes stood out. In English with an accent Zhostov I told the owner of this store everything on this tray and its author, for which I had arranged a warm reception east. I felt proud of his fellow villagers and their motherland. These memories do not leave me until now.
And it all began some 200 years ago. The official birth of Zhostovo painting is considered to be in 1825, the year of the opening of the workshop OF Vishnyakova (other sources say it happened before - in 1807). Year of birth of the art - a purely notional date, since the emergence of this production - a long and continuous process, which involved dozens of people living in villages Ostashkovo, Zhostovo, Novoyaletsevo, Trinity, and others. But historically, that this fishery is thoroughly settled down in the village of Zhostovo, which quickly developed to this day, in spite of the crises and defaults. Hence, the name stuck - "Zhostovo tray."
Along with the workshop OF Vishnyakova in 1830 in the village shops have Zhostovo Timothy Maksimovic Belyaeva, Yegor Fyodorovich Belyaev and Vasily Leontiev Leontyevich. However, their age at the time was quite young, so I am convinced that the main contribution to the organization of production have their fathers: Maxim and Fyodor Belyaev and Leonti Leontiev. "My grandfather Belyaev, TM M. Belyaev and great-grandfather had podnosnuyu shop owner who later became a VT Belyaev. "
Thus it can be argued that Maxim Belyaev Belyaev and Timothy Maksimovic, Fedor Fedorovich Belyaev and Egor were the founders of the dynasty in the production of Belyaev lacquer trays in Zhostovo. The production of lacquer trays are not born from nothing, and appeared on the basis of production of articles made of papier-mache, and it is quite natural. There was already a school of painting. This experience and the technology handed down from generation to generation. Initially, production was numerically small family shops are busy, but with increasing demand began to emerge and larger workshops with the involvement of hired craftsmen from the local population, which was organized by trained students.
For over 200 years, this production was one of the main sources of income of the villagers Zhostovo and nearby villages. The most extensive development of the production was in the second half of the 19th century, 1860-1890 years. This production was mainly involved relatives Belyaev. From Maxim Belyaev workshops went by inheritance to his son - Timothy Maksimovich, and from him - to the VT Belyaev. In the archival material preserved many names of painters dynasty Belyaev, but in the manufacture of trays, and attended dozens of other specialties: forged, grinders and manufacturers of paints, without which there would be no Fedoskino. But the rules are so mundane that the story keeps the names of people who are at the final stage of the manufacturing process. The whole world knows the first cosmonaut Gagarin, but for space flight have worked hundreds of thousands of unknown people.
I would like to mention a decent man of the dynasty, Belyaev - Belyaev Andrey Kalashnikov (1874), son of Timothy Maksimovic Belyaev, who was the patriarch in the manufacture of varnishes for the trays. And it is that magic varnish gives gloss and color inks. The secret of cooking technology and varnishes were carefully preserved, and the production of capital, and handed down from generation to generation. In the future, the process involved in Belyaev (Batir) Valentina, great-granddaughter of T. Belyaev.
Workshop Belyaeva TM and subsequently VT located directly in the house where the family lived, the number of employees amounted to 10-15 people. Trays from the workshop Belyaev participated in various exhibitions and in great demand, or in a market that production would not have survived. After the revolution of 1917 the production of trays has been violated: shops were closed, the house Belyaev was selected, and the family as "alien elements" were repressed - sent in the desert steppes of Kazakhstan on the construction of a metallurgical plant. In 20-30 years the production of Fedoskino going through hard times, until the moment when, together with the formation of collective farms was established gang "Metallopodnos" (1930). was organized by the School of brigadier apprenticeship. In 1942, the co-operative to study the great master Andrei Pavlovich came Gogin 15-year old Nina Belyaeva, great-granddaughter of T. Belyaev. From this point begins a new dynasty Belyaev off skill. Belyaeva (Goncharov) NN harmoniously blended into a collective of artists and through perseverance, labor and attention from teachers and elders to take its rightful place among the artists, craftsmen. Its trays are kept in many museums around the country. She is the honored artist of the RSFSR, laureate of state prize, has state awards. The most common flowers in the compositions of NN Goncharova - Roses. "This is my favorite flowers," - she said. You look at them and think it's perfect. Admire the unique beauty, filigree technique of painting, and at times it seems that even smell the freshness of the morning coming from the delicate petals of roses.
In place of Belyaeva (Goncharova) NN came to her daughter Larisa Goncharova - Honored Artist of Russia. Organizer School (Master Class), which enjoys great popularity, as we have in this country and abroad. Experience gained from the mother, plus the academic background allowed her to not blindly copy existing drawings, and considerably improve the technique and composition, inherent only to it. The depth and richness of color gives an unearthly color, it seems that its flowers emit light, warmth, joy and music ... as in the spring woods, full of many-voiced singing of birds.
Dynasty Belyaev is gaining strength. In the postwar years has grown a lot of great artists, the descendants of Maximus, Theodore and Timothy Belyaev: Belyaev (Kledova) Irraida S., Nicholas G. Belyaev, Larisa Goncharova and others. In one article, it is difficult to talk about all Belyaev. Anyway, most of them are involved in the production of trays in the future it will be possible as the information becomes available to mention them all, and not only about Belyaev. In the family tree of the dynasty are Belyaev, perhaps, not all descendants and permitted inaccuracies. I would be very glad if villagers supplement or clarify the list. The past is not forgotten. This is our story with you, with you it is our homeland.
Honored Constructor of Russia I. Belyaev